back (05.23.04/02.27.08)
DrTim homepage
More Nutrition: Link to FLING Diet Page

Nutrition Effects on Weight Control (Basic Information)
Dr. Timothy Bilash MD

  1. What is food?
  2. Vitamins
  3. Minerals
  4. Why you need and burn food
  5. Lifestyle Issues
  6. Obesity prisoner study

  1. What is food?
    1. C,H,O,N,P
    2. small carbohydrates (simple sugars and starches) [CHO]
      1. energy
    3. big carbohydrates (complex starches) [CHO]
    4. protein (contains nitrogen) [CHON]
      1. body components
    5. fat [CH]
      1. storage (for long-term energy)
    6. other nutrients (vitamins, minerals, special fats, P)
      1. cofactors to do things in your body

  2. Vitamins
    1. Vitamin C (yellow, tangy)
    2. B vitamins
      1. Niacin
      2. Thiamine
    3. Folate (green, vegetables)
    4. Beta carotene, vitamin A (orange)
    5. Vitamin D

  3. Minerals
    1. Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), (Copper, Zinc, Selenium)
    2. Potassium
      1. K+ rich foods [N Engl J Med 1998;339:451-8, ACOG Clin rev Jan/2000 p3]
        1. tomatoes
        2. broccoli
        3. dried fruits, figs
        4. nuts
        5. bran cereals
        6. cauliflower, cabbage
        7. carrots
        8. bananas
        9. oranges
        10. spinach
        11. seaweed
        12. beef steak
        13. pork
        14. lamb

  4. Why you need and burn food
    1. burning is making energy by adding oxygen
    2. energy expenditure
      1. resting metabolic rate (60-70%)
      2. physical activity (15-30%)
      3. heat (5-10%)
    3. muscle energy
      1. resting muscle burns fatty acids (tone)
      2. working muscle burns sugar (activity)
      3. aerobic excercise (sweating, huffing and puffing) burns more sugar than fat
      4. fitness raises the exercise set point switchover (burn more fat)

  5. Lifestyle Issues
    1. Green, red, yellow
    2. Exercise
    3. Obesity
      1. three predictors of weight gain
        1. low resting energy expenditure [muscle tone]
        2. elevated respiratory quotient (RQ) [carbohydrate burning]
        3. insulin inhibits release of fat from fat cells
      2. low fat foods
        1. Shift from animal products to complex carbohydrates reduces intake of nutrients if no supplementation
      3. anerobic stress inhibits metabolism by raising cortisol levels
        1. cortisol is a catabolic hormone that raises insulin levels, to rely on sugar usage instead of fat usage.
        2. cortisol is a muscle stripper by converting muscle to fuel as well.
        3. anerobic training can decrease the number of aerobic muscle fibers
        4. lactic acid is a toxin
      4. slow the food absorption
    4. Diabetes
      1. high insulin stores fat
    5. Smoking
      1. Nicotine (oxygen poison)
      2. Carbon monoxide (oxygen blocker)
    6. Alcohol and Drugs
      1. poor nutrition
      2. liver, brain damage

  6. Obesity prisoner study
    1. asked to gain weight
      1. - they became lethargic, less proficient, had poor perceptions of their body at higher weights
      2. - external behavioral stimuli more important
    2. water weight/ BMR
      1. -BMR = 20cal/kg
      2. -ECF 20L in man
      3. -retention of water at beginning of diet (glucagon)
      4. -BMR decreases 20% at beginning of diet, T3,T4 go down, TSH does not go up
        1. Test for goiter
          1. Raise arms- if trouble breathing, goiter impinges on trachea/airway
    3. muscle:
      1. -30 kg muscle in man, 1% glycogen(3000 gms)
      2. -1500 gms non-essential so can go to glucose and meet brain starvation need for 30 days before start using essential proteins
      3. -protein is the only way to get glucose after body stores gone: F.A. go to pyruvate in TCA, but no new glucose.
      4. -acetone goes to acetic acid in addition to lactic acid, esp in ketoacidosis, probably thru acetaldehyde intermediate.
      5. -ketone bodies may also be made in the periphery.
    4. liver:
      1. -liver, fat, muscle need insulin to get glucose in cell. (muscle can shift to ketone bodies)
      2. -liver 1500gms, 5% glycogen = 75gms 
    5. glucose:
      1. -WBC's need glucose to remake cell membranes used in phagocytosis (skeleton needed)
      2. -brain needs ~120gms glucose per day
      3. -hi glucose in cells is turned into sorbitol- remains hyperosmotic after reduce serum glucose levels, therefore get lens swelling after give insulin
      4. -1% glucosuria(~3+) doesn't cause polyuria
      5. -diabetic neuropathy- quinine or elavil helps with pain


Counter page visits since 9/7/2012 (posted 5/23/2004)